Anti-squat

What is anti-squat? As the name “anti-squat” suggests that there will be resistance to squatting of vehicle. Squatting is referred as the motion of vehicle along the transverse center of gravity axis or the rotary motion towards rear side observed from side view of vehicle. This phenomenon of squatting is generally observed while vehicle is …

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Understeer and oversteer

Understeer In understeer, vehicle turns less on the corners as compared to steering input. This occurs due to the loss of traction at front wheels which pushes vehicle outside the turn and will trace a wider curve radius than the actual radius of turn. Understeer causes Understeer causes due to the slipping of front wheels …

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Roll center

What is roll center and roll axis? Each suspension system has a suspension roll center defined as the point in the transverse vertical plane through the wheel centers at which lateral forces may be applied to sprung mass without producing suspension roll. A “roll center” (RC) is a theoretical point about which the chassis of …

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Toe angle

What is toe angle? Toe angle is the angle between the wheel and longitudinal axis of the vehicle observed from the top view. It is also known as wheel installation angle. Generally, toe angle is measured in degrees. When the front edge of wheel is towards the longitudinal axis than the rear edge as seen …

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Scrub radius

What is scrub radius? Scrub radius is the distance between the two imaginary points on road surface out of which one point is camber line or centerline of the tire and the second point is the point generated by intersection of steering axis or KPI and the road surface. As shown in picture if the …

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king pin inclination

What is king pin inclination or KPI? The name king pin is derived from the king pin joints which was getting used in the carts in early 19th century. In early days of 19th century king pin joint was used to join the stub axle and the front axle of the karts. A single pin …

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Caster angle

What is Caster angle? Caster angle is an angle between vertical axis of wheel and the steering axis or king pin axis as seen from side view of vehicle. Caster is the angle to which the steering pivot axis is tilted forward or rearward from vertical, as viewed from the side. It is measured along …

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Camber angle

What is camber angle? Camber angle is an angle between the wheel’s plane and the vertical plane. It is measured generally in degrees. Camber angle can be observed from front view of vehicle. The camber angle may be positive, negative or zero depending upon the direction in which wheel is tilted. Camber angle conventions are same as …

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Types of suspension geometry

There are mainly two types of independent front suspension geometries which are commonly used in commercial cars. 1. MacPherson strut type       In this type of geometry, a strut (damper + coil spring) is mounted on stub axle (upright). Also, the lower wishbone arm is connected to the stub axle using a ball joint …

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suspension system

Simply suspension is the system which consists of various components such as shock absorbers, wheels, linkages, uprights, bushing, ball joints and which allows relative motion between the chassis and wheel end of the vehicle. We always thought that the suspension system is only responsible for the comfort of the driver. But if we deep dive …

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