ride frequency

natural frequency or ride frequency of vehicle Let’s first understand the natural frequency. The frequency at which elastic object or material will oscillate naturally when there is no damping applied to it is known as natural frequency of that object or material. For particularly vehicles the term ride frequency or suspension frequency is used. Imagine …

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Pitch roll and yaw

Pitch roll and yaw motion of a car A vehicle or aircraft in different scenarios mainly exhibits the motion along the three axis i.e., XYZ. This three motions are roll, pitch and yaw. One by one we will try to understand these three motions of vehicle. Pitch Rotation of vehicle along the transverse axis of …

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Track width

what is track width? Track width or wheel track is the distance between the center of two front or rear wheels as observed from front or back view of vehicle. Track width is one of the important vehicle parameters on which stability and cornering performance is highly dependent. How Track width affects dynamics of vehicle? …

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Wheelbase

What is wheelbase? Wheelbase is the distance between the center of front wheels and rear wheels. Both the wheel center must be at same height to get accurate value of wheelbase. Generally, wheelbase of vehicle is finalized considering the comfort, ride and handling, stability, cornering dynamics of vehicle. Long wheelbase Long wheelbase signifies the stability …

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Center of gravity

Center of gravity of vehicle Center of gravity of vehicle can be termed as the point about which whole vehicle can be balanced or one can consider that the point about which whole mass of vehicle is concentrated. All the forces which are acting on the vehicle while cornering, accelerating, braking, those forces are acting …

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Anti-dive

What is anti-dive? During braking there is longitudinal weight transfer along the center of gravity which produces forward pitching motion also called as dive. To resist this forward pitching or dive the term “anti-dive” is introduced for front suspension geometry. Also, virtually all brakes are mounted on the suspended wheel (except inboard brakes), the brake …

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Anti-squat

What is anti-squat? As the name “anti-squat” suggests that there will be resistance to squatting of vehicle. Squatting is referred as the motion of vehicle along the transverse center of gravity axis or the rotary motion towards rear side observed from side view of vehicle. This phenomenon of squatting is generally observed while vehicle is …

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Understeer and oversteer

Understeer In understeer, vehicle turns less on the corners as compared to steering input. This occurs due to the loss of traction at front wheels which pushes vehicle outside the turn and will trace a wider curve radius than the actual radius of turn. Understeer causes Understeer causes due to the slipping of front wheels …

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Roll center

What is roll center and roll axis? Each suspension system has a suspension roll center defined as the point in the transverse vertical plane through the wheel centers at which lateral forces may be applied to sprung mass without producing suspension roll. A “roll center” (RC) is a theoretical point about which the chassis of …

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Toe angle

What is toe angle? Toe angle is the angle between the wheel and longitudinal axis of the vehicle observed from the top view. It is also known as wheel installation angle. Generally, toe angle is measured in degrees. When the front edge of wheel is towards the longitudinal axis than the rear edge as seen …

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Scrub radius

What is scrub radius? Scrub radius is the distance between the two imaginary points on road surface out of which one point is camber line or centerline of the tire and the second point is the point generated by intersection of steering axis or KPI and the road surface. As shown in picture if the …

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king pin inclination

What is king pin inclination or KPI? The name king pin is derived from the king pin joints which was getting used in the carts in early 19th century. In early days of 19th century king pin joint was used to join the stub axle and the front axle of the karts. A single pin …

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