Tire and its manufacturing


A tire could be a sturdy, versatile rubber casing hooked up to the rim of a wheel. Tires offer a fascinating surface for traction and function as a cushion for the wheels of a moving vehicle. Tires area unit found on automobiles, trucks, buses, landing gear, tractors and different farm instrumentality, industrial vehicles like forklifts, and customary conveyances like baby carriages, searching carts, wheelchairs, bicycles, and motorcycles. Tires for many vehicles area unit pneumatic; the air is command stressed within the tire. Till recently, gas tires had an associate tube to carry the gas pressure, however, currently, the gas tires area unit is designed to make a pressure seal with the rim of the wheel. Scottish discoverer Henry Martyn Robert Thomson developed the tire with the tube in 1845, however his style was before its time and attracted little interest. The tire was reinvented within the Eighteen Eighties by another Scotchman, John Boyd Dunlop, and has become forthwith popular bicyclists. Natural rubber is the main staple utilized in producing tires, though gum elastic is additionally used. To develop the right characteristics of strength, resiliency, and wear resistance, the rubber should be treated with a range of chemicals till heated. Yankee discoverer Goodyear discovered the method of strengthening rubber, called processing, or set, unexpectedly in 1839. He had been experimenting with rubber since 1830 however had been unable to develop an acceptable hardening natural process. Throughout the associate experiment with a combination of Indian rubber and sulfur, the discoverer gave birth to the mixture on a hot stove. A chemical action transpires and, rather than melting, the rubber-sulfur mixture shaped a tough lump. He continued his experiments till he might treat continuous sheets of rubber.

Classification of tire

The Manufacturing Process:

A coach tire is factory-made by wrapping multiple layers of specially developed rubber around a drum in a tire-forming machine. The various parts of the tire area unit are carried to the forming machine, where a talented assembly program cuts and positions the strips to create the various components of the tire, known as a “green tire” at that time. Once an inexperienced tire is finished, the drum collapses, permitting the tire assembly program to get rid of the tire. The inexperienced tire is then taken to mildew for natural process.

1. The primary step within the tire producing method is that the mix of raw materials to create the rubber compound. Railcars deliver massive quantities of natural and artificial rubber, soot, sulfur, and alternative chemicals and oils, all that area unit are kept till required. Laptop management systems contain numerous recipes and might mechanically make up one’s mind-specific batches of rubber and chemicals for the mix. Large mixers, hanging like vertical cement mixers, stir the rubber and chemicals along in batches deliberation up to 100 pounds.

2. Every combine is then refilled with further heating to melt the batch and blend the chemicals. During a third step, the batch goes through a mixer once more, wherever further chemicals area unit other to create what is referred to as the ultimate combine. Throughout all 3 steps of blending, heat and friction are applied to the batch to melt the rubber and equally distribute the chemicals. The chemical composition of every batch depends on the tire part—certain rubber formulations are used for the body, alternative formulas for the beads, etc. for the tread.

tire manufacturing process

Body, Beads, and Treads:

3. Once a batch of rubber has been mixed, it goes through powerful rolling mills that squeeze the batch into thick sheets. These sheets are then wont to build the precise elements of the tire. The tire body, for example, consists of strips of cloth-like cloth that are coated with rubber. every strip of rubberized cloth is employed to create a layer referred to as a ply within the tire body. A railroad car tire could have as several as four plies within the body.

 4. For the beads of a tire, wire bundles are fashioned on a wire wrapping machine. The bundles are then fashioned into rings, and therefore the rings are coated with rubber.

 5. The rubber for the tire tread and sidewalls travels from the batch mixer to a unique style of process machine referred to as an extruder. within the extruder, the batch is more mixed and heated and is then forced out through a die—a formed orifice—to type a layer of rubber. Sidewall rubber is roofed with a protecting plastic sheet and rolled. Tread rubber is sliced into strips and loaded into massive, flat metal cases referred to as books.

Tire-building machine:

6. The rolls of sidewall rubber, the books containing tread rubber, and therefore the racks of beads are all delivered to a talented computer program at a tire-building machine. At the middle of the machine could be a tip-up rotating drum that holds the tire elements. The tire computer program starts building a tire by wrapping the rubber-covered material plies of the body around the machine drum. Once the ends of those plies are joined with glue, the beads are intercalary and fastened into place with further tire body plies set over the beads.

tire building machine

Next, the computer program uses special power tools to form the perimeters of the tire plies. Finally, the extruded rubber layers for the sidewalls and tread are pasted into place, and therefore the assembled tire—the inexperienced tire—is aloof from the tire-building machine. After the inexperienced tire is formed, it is placed in mildew for action. Formed sort of a clam, the mildew contains an outsized, versatile balloon. The tire is then placed over the balloon (bladder), and therefore the mildew closes. Next, steam is wired into the balloon, increasing it to form the tire against the perimeters of the mildew. once cooling, the tire is inflated and tested.

Tire Construction:

A tire could be circular and ring like a part of a vehicle that comes in-tuned with the ground. Tires square measure fitted on rims and square measure crammed with compressed gas. Since their invention, natural rubber is that the most generally used material in producing Tires. However, trendy tires additionally use materials like India rubber, fabric, steel wires, smut, and a few a lot of compounds. Tires notice a place in a wide selection of locomotives, from bicycles to airplanes.

tire construction

In general, there are 2 major categories of tires, in accordance with the presence or absence of tubes in them. Thus, they are referred to as ‘tubed tires’ and ‘tubeless tires’ severally. what is more, supported the development or skeleton of tires called the body, tires are classified into the subsequent main types: Cross-ply or bias-ply: In these tires, ply cords square measure at an angle of 30°-40° to the tire axis. Radial ply: In these tires, ply cords run within the radial direction. Belted-bias ply: this is often a mixture of the higher than mentioned varieties. However, most of the tires used today belong to the category of radial tubeless tires.

Functions of a tire:

  • To maintain contact between vehicle and ground by providing the desired traction.
  • To support the load of the vehicle.
  • Dealing with various forces acting on the vehicle during its motion.
  • Providing cushion against shocks and damping.

Tire Components:

The components of several types of tires are shown below:

1. Truck bias tire:

Truck bias tire

2. Truck Radial tire:

Truck radial tire

3. Radial (PCR) tire:

Radial tire
Courtesy: Discovery UK

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